References

Website Content

  1. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Overview of the Vascular System. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/cardiovascular_diseases/overview_of_the_vascular_system_85,P08254/ Accessed April 2018
  2. Mayo Clinic. Coronary artery disease symptoms and causes. Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20350613 Accessed December 2017
  3. Hiramoto JS1, Katz R, Weisman S, Conte M. et al. Gender-specific risk factors for peripheral artery disease in a voluntary screening population. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Mar 13;3(2):e000651.
  4. Mayo Clinic. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) – Overview. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peripheral-artery-disease/home/ovc-20167418 Accessed December 2017
  5. NHS Choices. Cardiovascular disease. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/cardiovascular-disease/ Accessed June 2018
  6. Cardiovascular Diseases. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/ Accessed December 2017
  7. Heart and Stroke Foundation. Coronary artery disease. Available at: http://www.heartandstroke.ca/heart/conditions/coronary-artery-disease Accessed December 2017
  8. The top 10 causes of death. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/ Accessed December 2017
  9. NHS Choices. Atherosclerosis. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Atherosclerosis/Pages/Introduction.aspx Accessed April 2018
  10. Atherosclerosis. Available at: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/atherosclerosis Accessed June 2018
  11. Morris, P. et al. 2015. Eureka: Cardiovascular Medicine. Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=DPpHCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=circulatory+100,000km&source=bl&ots=ya-rLoVYL5&sig=jxLYNAxdFxN4UTUX8V2jslRwduo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi4w5-RvejXAhULqVQKHehcBrwQ6AEIWjAJ#v=onepage&q=circulatory%20100%2C000km&f=false Accessed April 2018
  12. Live Science. 11 Surprising Facts About the Circulatory System. Available at: https://www.livescience.com/39925-circulatory-system-facts-surprising.html Accessed April 2018
  13. Cardiovascular System. Available at: http://www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html Accessed December 2017
  14. Mayo Clinic. Coronary artery disease (CAD) – Treatment. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/disease-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/diagnosis-treatment/treatment/txc-20165340 Accessed April 2018
  15. Degrauwe S, et al. Dual antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. http://openheart.bmj.com/content/4/2/e000651
  16. Mayo Clinic. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) – Diagnosis and Treatment. Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peripheral-artery-disease/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350563 Accessed April 2018
  17. NHS Choices. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/peripheral-arterial-disease-pad/ Accessed June 2018

 

What is CAD

  1. Heart & Stroke Foundation. Coronary Artery Disease. Available at: https://www.heartandstroke.ca/heart/conditions/coronary-artery-disease Accessed December 2017.
  2. What is Atherosclerosis?. Available at: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/atherosclerosis Accessed January 2018.
  3. NHS Choices. Atherosclerosis. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Atherosclerosis/Pages/Introduction.aspx Accessed December 2017.
  4. Mayo Clinic. Coronary Artery Disease Symptoms and Causes. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/dxc-20165314 Accessed December 2017.
  5. org. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina). Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/DiagnosingaHeartAttack/Angina-Pectoris-Stable-Angina_UCM_437515_Article.jsp#.WrK_NGrFJyx. Accessed June 2018.
  6. Unstable Angina. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/DiagnosingaHeartAttack/Unstable-Angina_UCM_437513_Article.jsp#.WrKaJ2rFKHs Accessed June 2018.
  7. Mayo Clinic. Coronary artery disease –Treatment. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/disease-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/diagnosis-treatment/treatment/txc-20165340 Accessed June 2018.
  8. Mayo Clinic. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) – Symptoms & causes. Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peripheral-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20350557 Accessed June 2018.
  9. Degrauwe S, et al. Dual antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. http://openheart.bmj.com/content/4/2/e000651.
  10. Heart and Stroke Foundation. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI or angioplasty with stent) Available at: http://www.heartandstroke.ca/heart/treatments/surgery-and-other-procedures/percutaneous-coronary-intervention Accessed June 2018.What is PAD

 

What is PAD

  1. Hiramoto JS1, Katz R, Weisman S, Conte M. et al. Gender-specific risk factors for peripheral artery disease in a voluntary screening population. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Mar 13;3(2):e000651.
  2. NHS Choices. Atherosclerosis. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Atherosclerosis/Pages/Introduction.aspx Accessed December 2017
  3. Mayo Clininc. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) – Symptoms and Causes. Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20350613 Accessed March 2018
  4. Mayo Clinic. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) – Symptoms and Causes. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peripheral-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/dxc-20167421 Accessed December 2017
  5. Current Options in the Diagnosis and Management of Acute Limb Ischemia. Available at: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/431272_2 Accessed March 2018
  6. Mayo Clinic. Coronary artery disease – Treatment. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/disease-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/diagnosis-treatment/treatment/txc-20165340 Accessed December 2017
  7. Degrauwe S, et al. Dual antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. http://openheart.bmj.com/content/4/2/e000651
  8. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) – Treatment. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/peripheralarterialdisease/Pages/Treatment.aspx Accessed December 2017
  9. British Heart Foundation. Focus on: Peripheral arterial disease. Available at: https://www.bhf.org.uk/heart-matters-magazine/medical/peripheral-arterial-disease Accessed December 2017
  10. Heart & Stroke Foundation. Coronary Artery Disease. Available at: https://www.heartandstroke.ca/heart/conditions/coronary-artery-disease Accessed January 2018

 

Fast Facts

The average human body contains 4-5 litres of blood

  1. Cardiovascular System. Available at: http://www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html Accessed December 2017

 

Blood, along with lymphatic fluid, is carried around the body by the vascular system delivering oxygen and other vital nutrients to the organs and tissues

  1. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Overview of the Vascular System. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/cardiovascular_diseases/overview_of_the_vascular_system_85,P08254/ Accessed June 2018

 

The entire vascular system is 100,000km long, enough to wrap itself around the world 2.5 times

  1. Morris, P. et al. 2015. Eureka: Cardiovascular Medicine. Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=DPpHCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=circulatory+100,000km&source=bl&ots=ya-rLoVYL5&sig=jxLYNAxdFxN4UTUX8V2jslRwduo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi4w5-RvejXAhULqVQKHehcBrwQ6AEIWjAJ#v=onepage&q=circulatory%20100%2C000km&f=false Accessed June 2018
  2. Live Science. 11 Surprising Facts About the Circulatory System. Available at: https://www.livescience.com/39925-circulatory-system-facts-surprising.html Accessed June 2018

 

The vascular system is made up of three types of vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries

  1. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Overview of the Vascular System. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/cardiovascular_diseases/overview_of_the_vascular_system_85,P08254/ Accessed June 2018

 

Arteries are the largest vessel and carry blood rich in oxygen from the lungs, away from the heart to the organs and tissues

  1. InnerBody. Cardiovascular System. Available at: http://www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html Accessed December 2017

 

Veins return the blood that has been transported by the arteries and capillaries back to the heart

  1. Cardiovascular System. Available at: http://www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html Accessed December 2017

 

Capillaries are the smallest vessel in the vascular system, and transport blood through the organs and tissues

  1. Cardiovascular System. Available at: http://www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html Accessed December 2017
  2. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Overview of the Vascular System. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/cardiovascular_diseases/overview_of_the_vascular_system_85,P08254/ Accessed June 2018

 

Vascular disease is a condition that affects the arteries and veins, restricting blood flow through the body and resulting in damage to the organs or limbs

  1. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Overview of the Vascular System. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/cardiovascular_diseases/overview_of_the_vascular_system_85,P08254/ Accessed June 2018

 

Cardiovascular diseases are vascular diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels, often via the coronary arteries

  1. NHS Choices. Cardiovascular Disease. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/cardiovascular-disease/ Accessed June 2018

 

People with CVD may live up to 7 years less than people without CVD

  1. Ameet Bakhai. The Burden of Coronary, Cerebrovascular and Peripheral Arterial Disease. Pharmacoeconomics 2004: 22, Suppl 4: 11-18

 

CVD is the number one cause of death worldwide

  1. Cardiovascular diseases. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/ Accessed June 2018

 

CAD occurs when plaque builds up in the arteries restricting blood and oxygen supply to the heart. Plaque may rupture creating a blood clot which can block blood flow and cause a heart attack.

  1. Medline plus. Coronary artery disease. Available at: https://medlineplus.gov/coronaryarterydisease.html, Accessed June 2018
  2. Heart & Stroke Foundation. Coronary Artery Disease. Available at: https://www.heartandstroke.ca/heart/conditions/coronary-artery-disease Accessed June 2018

 

CAD can be associated with an increased risk of stroke, should plaque build-up block blood flow to the brain

  1. Heart & Stroke Foundation. Coronary Artery Disease. Available at: https://www.heartandstroke.ca/heart/conditions/coronary-artery-disease Accessed June 2018

 

CAD was the cause of 8.8 million deaths worldwide in 2015

  1. WHO factsheet. The top 10 causes of death. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/ Accessed June 2018

 

PAD is a common circulatory disease where plaque build-up narrows the peripheral arteries and limits blood flow to the limbs

  1. Mayo Clinic. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) – Overview. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/peripheral-artery-disease/home/ovc-20167418 Accessed June 2018

 

PAD is estimated to affect over 202 million people worldwide

  1. Hiramoto JS1, Katz R, Weisman S, Conte M. et al. Gender-specific risk factors for peripheral artery disease in a voluntary screening population. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Mar 13;3(2):e000651.

 

50% of people diagnosed with PAD do not experience any symptoms, but for those who do the most common is leg pain, or cramping

  1. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Peripheral Vascular Disease. Available at: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/cardiovascular_diseases/peripheral_vascular_disease_85,P00236 Accessed June 2018
  2. Hiramoto JS1, Katz R, Weisman S, Conte M. et al. Gender-specific risk factors for peripheral artery disease in a voluntary screening population. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Mar 13;3(2):e000651.

 

1-3% of PAD patients who experience lower leg pain or cramping, may have to have an amputation. In patients with diabetes, this risk increases to 5%

  1. British Heart Foundation. Focus on: Peripheral arterial disease. Available at: https://www.bhf.org.uk/heart-matters-magazine/medical/peripheral-arterial-disease Accessed June 2018

 

PAD patients are at higher risk of also having CAD and other vascular diseases and are therefore at risk of associated complications such as heart attack and stroke, should plaque build-up block blood flow to the brain

  1. Heart & Stroke Foundation. Coronary Artery Disease. Available at: https://www.heartandstroke.ca/heart/conditions/coronary-artery-disease Accessed June 2018
  2. Coronary Heart Disease. Available at: https://www.bupa.co.uk/health-information/directory/c/coronary-heart-disease Accessed June 2018

 

As it is possible that symptoms of CAD and PAD may not be present in most people until serious events occur, it is important to ensure you are doing all you can to protect your vascular health

  1. Coronary Heart Disease. Available at: https://www.bupa.co.uk/health-information/directory/c/coronary-heart-disease Accessed June 2018

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